An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese — Chapters 1-8

These notes are mostly a reproduction of the 文法ノート sections of the chapters in the textbook, An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese by Akira Miura & Naomi Hanaoka McGloin.

Chapter 1 文法ノート

  1. V (plain past) ばかり = ‘have just done something; have just finished doing something’
  2. 日本へ行ったばかりのころは、日本語がわからなくて困りました。
    When I was a newcomer to Japan, I had trouble understanding Japanese.
  3. あの
    Both あの and その can be used with the meaning ‘that ~’ when an item you are referring to is not in sight. あの is used when both the speaker and the hearer are (or are assumed to be) familiar with a person or thing in question. When only the speaker or the hearer is familiar with an item, その should be used.
  4. V (plain) ようになる
    This pattern indicates a change which has taken place or will take place. Just as an い-adjective changes to –く (e.g. 安くなる) and な–adjective to – に (e.g., しずかになる), when a verb occurs with なる, ように is inserted.
    • 日本へ行ってから、日本に興味(きょうみ)を持つようになりました。
      I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan
    • 漢字を勉強しなければ、日本語の新聞(しんぶん)が読めるようになりません。
      Unless you study kanji, you won’t become able to read Japanese newspapers.
  5. ~なあ
    This is a sentence-final particle of exclamation. Its use is generally restricted to men in informal conversation, but it is also used by women in monologues. In conversation, women would use ~(わ)ねえ.
    • しばらくだなあ。
      It’s been a long time since I last saw you.
      [Women would say しばらくねえ.]
    • 一度アフリカへ行ってみたいなあ。
      I wish I could go to Africa once!
      Women would say 行ってみたい(わ)ねえ if addressing someone in conversation. However, women will often use the above form in expressing their own desires or feelings without addressing anyone in particular.
  6. V (plain) ことになる = ‘It has been decided/arranged that ~’
    V (plain) ことになっている = ‘be expected/supposed to; ~it is a rule/custom that ~’
    ことになる indicates that a certain decision has been made for the speaker by outside forces. It is often used when a situation has been arranged or when one is scheduled to do something. ことになっている, on the other hand, is used to describe a rule, regulation or social custom.
    • 日本で英語を教えることになっています。
      I am to teach English in Japan.
    • 日本の会社で仕事をすることになりました。
      [It has been arranged that] I will be working at a Japanese company.
    • 日本の家に上がる時は、くつをぬぐことになっています。
      When you enter a Japanese house, you are supposed to take off your shoes.
  7. V (stem) にくい = something is difficult to V.
    V (stem) やすい = something is easy to V.
  8. V (plain) ことにする = ‘decide to do ~’
    Compared with ことになる, this pattern indicates active decision making by the person involved.
    Note: to say ‘decide not to do ~’ use V (ない form) ことになる
  9. S1 たらS2 = ‘When S1, S2
    When たら clause is followed by a sentence (=S2) in the past tense, it means ‘when.’ The second sentence usually expresses an event or state you did not expect.
    • 昨日図書館へ行ったら、先生にあいました。
      Yesterday, when I went to the library, I saw my teacher.
  10. とても~ない = ‘can’t possibly’
    This phrase expresses a very strong sense of impossibility. The verb is usually in potential form. [Note: とても implies reluctance or hesitance whereas ぜんぜん just states it cannot be done.]
    • たくさんあって、とても食べ切れません。
      There is so much that I can’t possibly eat it all.
    • 東京ではとても家なんか買えません。
      I can’t possibly buy a house in Tokyo.
  11. V (stem of ます form + 方) = ‘way of doing V’
    • 漢字は、一つのものにも読み方がたくさんあるので、(むずか)しい。
      Kanji are difficult because [even] one kanji [often] has a number of readings.
  12. ~らしい = ‘evidently; it seems that’
    ~らしい expresses one’s conjectures. It can be attached to nouns (e.g. 日本人らしい), stems of な-adjectives (e.g. しずからしい), plain forms of い-adjectives (e.g. 安いらしい) and plain forms of verbs (e.g. 行くらしい). It tends to be used when one’s conjecture is based on what one has heard.
    • 日本人は、(あつ)いお風呂(ふろ)が好きらしい。
      It seems that the Japanese people like hot baths.
    • 東京は、物価(ぶっか)が高くて、住みにくいらしい。
      It seems that Tokyo is a difficult place to live in because everything is expensive.
    • アメリカでは、学生が先生をファースト・ネームで()ぶらしい。
      Evidently, students call teachers by their first name in America.
  13. Vて初めてのN = ‘the first N after V-ing’
    When a verb occurs instead of a noun, this expression takes the form of V1 て初めてV2, meaning ‘When V1 happens, then for the first time V2 happens.
    • 学校が始まって初めてのピクニックで、先生やほかの学生におおぜい会った。
      I met many teachers and students at the first picnic of the semester.
    • 日本へ行って初めて、一日中日本語だけではんしました。
      When I went to Japan, I spent a whole day speaking only in Japanese, for the first time in my life.
    • 大学に入って初めて、日本人に会いました。
      When I entered college, I met a Japanese person for the first time.

Chapter 2 文法ノート

  1. V ないで = ‘without V-ing; instead of V-ing’
    V ないで, one of the negative て-forms of a verb, is often followed by another verb, and indicates a manner in which a certain action is carried out.
    • 日本では、何も言わないで食事を始めるのは失礼だ。
    • 図書館へ行かないで家で勉強する学生もいる。

    V ないで often carries a connotation that one didn’t do what one was expected to do.

  2. Vばいいのに = ‘You should ~ (lit., it would be good if you did ~)’
    This expression is usually used to suggest the opposite of what the other person is doing or not doing.
    • もっと早く()ればいいのに。
      You should go to bed earlier.
    • 分からないところは先生に聞けばいいのに。
      You should ask your teacher about things that you don’t understand. [said to someone who is hesitant about asking the teach some questions.]
  3. それに = ‘besides; moreover’
    • 東京は、人が多いし、それに物価(ぶっか)も高いので、住みにくいです。
    • A: 今日は元気がなさそうだね。
      You don’t look well today.
      B: うん、(あたま)(いた)くて、それに(ねつ)もちょっとあるんで。
      Yes. I have a headache, and I also have a slight fever.
      A: じゃ、早く帰って休んだ方がいいね。
      In that case, you should go home early and rest.

    Other conjunctions which are often used include それで ‘therefore; so,’ そして ‘and; and then; and also,’ それから ‘after that.’ そして is the most general conjunction meaning ‘and.’ それから emphasizes that an event follow another event in time, and それで emphasizes ‘causal’ relation between two sentences.

    • 昨日は買い物に行きました。{それから・そして}友達の家のパーティーへ行って、(よる)十時ごろ家へ帰ってきました。
      I went shopping yesterday. After that I went to a party at a friend’s house and came home about ten at night.

    In the sample sentence above, both それから and そして are fine. However, それから emphasizes the fact that it was after the shopping that the speaker went to the party. In some cases, therefore, それから and そして are not interchangeable.

    • 昨日は、日本料理屋へ行った。そして(*それから)おすしを食べた。
      (* means that it is ungrammatical)
      Yesterday I went to a Japanese restaurant and ate sushi.
    • 友達は六時ごろいえへ来た。そして(*それから)八時ごろ帰った。
      My friend came to my home about six, and left about eight.

    それで presents a reason or cause.

    • 雪が()りました。それで、飛行機(ひこうき)(おく)れたんです。
      It was snowing. The flight was delayed because of that.
  4. なかなか~ない
    なかなか, when used with a negative, means that something is not easily done or that it takes time for something to happen.
    • 漢字がなかなか(おぼ)えられなくて、(こま)って今す。
      It’s terrible because it takes a long time for me to memorize kanji.
    • コーヒーを飲んだので、なかなか(ねむ)れませんでした。
      I had coffee, and so I couldn’t fall asleep easily.
  5. Question word + ~か分からない
    For embedding a wh-question in another sentence, simply change the ending of the embedded question into the plain form. The copula だ is optional. Be sure to keep the question particle か at the end of the clause.

    • 卒業(そつぎょう)してから何をするかまだ分かりません。
      I don’t know yet what I will be doing after graduation.

    Also note that a yes-no question can be embedded in another sentence by putting the predicate into the plain form and by adding かどうか.

    • コピー(だい)(はら)ったかどうか(おぼ)えていません。
      I don’t remember whether I paid the copying charge or not.
  6. しか~ない = ‘only’
    しか always occurs with a negative. The implied meaning is that the amount/item mentioned is not enough or less than expected.

    • まんがしか読まない子供が多いのは、困る。
      It’s too bad that there are so many children who read only comic books.

    Note that しか, like the particle も, replaces the particles は, が, and を, but other particles are retained as in 学校でしか ‘only at school,’ 友達にしか ‘only to my friend,’ etc.

  7. つまり = ‘in other words; that is; namely; in short’
    • (むかし)は一ドル三百五十円だったこともあるが、今は一ドル百五十円ぐらいだ。つまり、ドルを持っていると、日本では昔の三分の一ぐらいの買い物しかできないのだ。
      In the old days, there was a time when a dollar was worth 360 yen, but now it is worth about 105 yen. In other words, nowadays, with dollars in Japan you can buy only a third of what you used to be able to.
  8. Sentence + わけです = ‘That is to say; It follows that; That means…’
    [Sentence + わけです] states a logical conclusion which can be drawn from previous statements. It often gives a summary or a restatement of previous statements.

    な-adjective: 上手なわけです;上手だったわけです
    い-adjective: 安いわけです;安かったわけです
    Noun: Noun + という/だった + わけ
    Verb: 行くわけです;行かないわけです;行ったわけです

    • A: スミスさんは日本に十年も住んでいたんですよ。
      Miss Smith has lived in Japan for as long as ten years
      B:  だから、日本語がペラペラわけですね。
      That’s why she speaks fluent Japanese, right?
    • A: あの人は外へも出かけないで勉強ばかりしています。
      He studies all the time without even going out.
      B: よくできるわけですね。
      No wonder he is good.
  9. ~によって = ‘depending on’
    • あいさつ言葉(ことば)はその日の天気によっていろいろ言えばよい。
      What greeting you may use may vary depending on the weather of the day.
  10. ~に()たる = ‘correspond to ~’
    • 日本語の「こんにちは」は、英語のHelloにあたる。
      Japanese “konnichiwa” corresponds to English “hello.”
    • 一ドルは、何円に当たりますか。
      How many yen is a dollar?
  11. ~のような N = ‘N, like ~; N such as ~’
    • 「どうも」のような便利(べんり)なフレーズは、英語にはないだろう。
      I don’t think English has a phrase like the convenient “doomo.”

Chapter 3 文法ノート

  1. Vないで
    In casual conversation, V ないでください is often contracted to V ないで.

    • 明日持ってくるのを忘れないでね。
      Please don’t forget to bring [it] tomorrow, OK?
  2. V(causative)ていただけないでしょうか
    Literally it means ‘Could I not receive a favor of your letting me do ~?’ It is a very polite request for permission to do something.

    • 前の日に試験(しけん)()けさせていただけないでしょうか。
      Would you please let me take the exam one day early?
  3. ~ば~ほど = ‘The more/less ~, the more/less ~’
    The first part of this construction is a ば-conditional form, and the second part is a plain form of verbs and い-adjectives. When noun -だ or な-adjectives occur, であれば is used.

    • 日本語は、勉強すれば勉強するほど面白(おもしろ)くなると思います。
      I think that the more you study Japanese the more interesting you will find it.
    • 学生が多ければ多いほど、(えら)ばれるのが(むずか)しい。
      The more students there are [who apply], the more difficult it is to be selected.
    • いいレストランであればあるほど高い。
      Better restaurants are more expensive.
    • 説明(せつめい)はかんたんであればあるほどいい。
      Simpler explanations are better.
  4. 以外(いがい)の/以外に = ‘other than ~; besides ~’
    • 学期(がっき)の初めは、教科書(きょうかしょ)以外にいろいろ買うものがある。
      At the beginning of the semester, there are so many things to buy besides textbooks.
    • 文部省(もんぶしょう)以外の奨学金(しょうがくきん)もあります。
      There are other scholarships than that from the Ministry of Education.
  5. (かなら)ずしも~というわけではない = ‘It does not necessarily mean that…’
    必ずしも is often followed by an expression such as ~というわけではない. This is a way of expressing that a certain expectation does not always hold.

    • 必ずしも日本へ行けば日本語が上手になるというわけではありません。
      It is not necessarily the case that one’s Japanese improves once one goes to Japan.
    • 必ずしも高いものがいいというわけではない。
      It is not necessarily the case that expensive things are good.
    • 必ずしも日本人がみんな納豆(なっとう)が好き[だ]というわけではありません。
      It is not necessarily the case that all Japanese like natto.
  6. ばかり = ‘nothing but ~’
    [X ばかりだ] expresses the idea that there are so much X that it appears as if only X exists.

    • 日本へ行って初めのころは、面白いことばかりだった。
      When I went to Japan, in the beginning I had nothing but interesting experiences.

    ばかり can also be used in combination with the て-form of a verb.

    • テレビを見てばかりいると勉強できません。
      If you watch TV all the time, you can’t study.
  7. なるべく = ‘as ~ as possible’
    • 宿題(しゅくだい)は、なるべく次の日に出してください。
      If possible, please hand in homework the next day.
  8. V (plain) べき = ‘should; ought to’
    This is a form derived from the classical auxiliary verb べし. It follows the plain non-past form of verbs and carries the meaning ‘one should do ~.’ When the verb is する, both すべき and するべき are used. The negative form of べき is V (plain) べきではない rather than *ないべきだ.

    • 日本語の新聞(しんぶん)が読みたかったら、漢字を勉強す[る]べきだ。
      If one wants to read Japanese newspapers, one should study kanji.
    • ほかの人の意見(いけん)も聞くべきだ。
      One should listen to the opinion of others.

Chapter 4 文法ノート

  1. (べつ)に(~ない)= ‘not particularly’
    別に is an adverb which is usually followed by a negative form and indicates that something is not particularly the case.

    • 先生: ブラウン君、今日は元気がありませんね。どうかしたんですか。
      Mr. Brown, you don’t look very well today. Is something wrong?
      ブラウン: いいえ、別に何でもありません。
      No, there is nothing particularly wrong.
    • A: 日本語のクラスは、どう?難しい?
      How is your Japanese class? Difficult?
      B: ううん、別に。
      Not particularly.

    In speech, the phrase which follows 別に is often omitted.

  2. ~かな
    This is a colloquial form of ~でしょうか meaning ‘I wonder.’ ~かな is used only by male speakers in very informal situations. Women would use ~かしら.

    • 今日は晩御飯(ばんごはん)に何が出てくるかな/かしら。
      I wonder what will be served for dinner today.

    ~かな can be used by women in monologues and also when it is followed by such expressions as と思う.

  3. たしか = ‘If I remember correctly; if I am not mistaken’
    When たしか is used, the speaker is somewhat uncertain about the truth of his statement.

    • アメリカで一番人口の多い(しゅう)は、たしかカリフォルニアだと思います。
      If I am recall correctly, the most populous state in the U.S. is California.

    Do not confuse たしか with たしかに ‘certainly.’ 例) たしかに私が悪かったです。 (Certainly, I’m the one who was wrong.)

  4. XはYで有名(ゆうめい)だ = ‘X is famous for Y’
    Y can be a noun or a noun phrase (i.e., a sentence + の/こと).

    • 京都は、古いお寺で有名な町です。
      Kyoto is famous for its old temples.
    • 日本人は、よく(はたら)くので有名です。
      The Japanese people are famous for working hard.
  5. にする = ‘to decide on N; to have/take N’
    • ピクニックは、今度の土曜日にしましょう。
      Let’s make it [the picnic] this Saturday.
  6. ~ようだNのように = ‘it seems that; it looks like ~’
    ~ようだ expresses one’s conjectures. It is attached to nouns, な-adjectives, plain forms of い-adjectives and verbs.

    日本人だ ⇒ 日本人のようだ
    しずかだ ⇒ しずかなようだ
    面白い⇒ 面白いようだ
    行く⇒ いくようだ

    • A: この白いのは何でしょうか。
      What’s this white thing?
      B: さあ、よく分かりませんが、おとうふのようですねえ。
      Well, I don’t know for sure, but it looks like tofu.
    • 日本人は白い車が好きなようです。
      Japanese people seem to like white cars.
    • 先生は毎日お(いそが)しいようです。いつも研究室(けんきゅうしつ)にいらっしゃいます。
      Our teacher seems to be busy every day. [He/she] is always in [his/her] office.
    • このごろちょっとやせたようです。前にきつかった洋服(ようふく)()られるようになりました。
      It seems I’ve lost some weight. I am able to wear clothes which were too tight before.

    Both らしい and よう give conjectures. With よう, there is a sense that the conjecture is based on the speaker’s first-hand information such as one’s direct observation. らしい, on the other hand, bases its conjectures more on what one heard.

    • 試験は難しかったようだ
      It seems that the exam was difficult (said, for example, by a teacher who has given an exam and observed that the students were having difficulty finishing or were looking grim, etc.)
    • 試験は難しかったらしい。
      It seems that the exam was difficult (suggests that the speaker has heard one of the students saying that the exam was difficult.)
    [N1 のような N2] specifically expresses the idea that N1 looks/behaves like N2. In the following examples, ような indicates that 田中さん is really not a woman but looks/acts like a woman. らしい, on the other hand, indicates that 田中さん is a typical woman – i.e. feminine.

    • 田中さんは、女のような人です。
      Mr. Tanaka looks like a woman.
    • 田中さんは、女らしいです。
      Ms. Tanaka is very feminine.

    Similarly, Nのように, which is an adverbial form, expresses the idea that someone/something acts/is like someone/something else.

    • スミスさんは、日本人のように日本語が上手です。
      Mr. Smith speaks Japanese like a native speaker.
  7. さえ = ‘even’
    さえ most normally follows a noun (or a sentence + こと), focusing on the most unusual or least expected case.

    • 自分の名前さえ書けない人は少ないでしょう。
      There probably are very few people who can’t even write their own names.
    • 期末(きまつ)試験(しけん)の前は、学生は忙しくて、()る時間さえありません。
      Students are so busy before final exams that they don’t even have time to sleep.
    • ときどき夏のように(あつ)い日さえあります。
      Some days, it’s even as hot as summer.
    • 日本の夏は暑くて、(ねむ)れないことさえあります。
      It’s so hot in the summer in Japan that ther are even times you can’t sleep.
  8. いつのまにか = ‘before one knows it; before one realizes’
    • お金はいつのまにかなくなってしまいました。
      Money is gone before you know it.
  9. ~になれる = ‘be used to; be accustomed to’
    This phrase follows a noun directly or a sentence followed by の.

    • 日本の生活になれてきました。
      I have become used to the Japanese way of life.
    • 日本人でも敬語(けいご)を使うのになれていない人がおおぜいいます。
      Even among the Japanese, there are many people who are not used to using honorifics.
  10. ~てくる
    When 来る and 行く are used with verbs which express change, process, transition, etc. they indicate how a certain change relates to the speaker in time. ~てくる indicates that a certain change has been taking place up to now, and ~ていく indicates that a change will continue to take place from now on.
  11. 日本語がだいぶ話せるようになってきました。
    I have come to be able to speak Japanese a lot better.
  12. 私たちの生活は、どんどん変わっていくでしょう。
    Our life style will continue to change rapidly.
  13. ~わけではない = ‘It does not mean that…; it does not follow that…’
    ~わけではない negates what one would generally conclude from previous statements or situations.

    • あまり英語を話しませんが、英語ができないわけではありません。
      [I] don’t speak English much, but that does not mean that [I] can’t speak it.
  14. Vないで()
    Vないで (negative て-form) followed by 済む means that one manages or gets by without doing V.

    • バスがすぐ来たので、あまり待たないで済みました。
      The bus came right away, and so I did not have to wait too long.
    • 毎日飯を作らないで済むといいですね。
      It will be nice if we don’t have to cook every day, don’t you think?
  15. V/Adjective (stem) すぎる = ‘too ~; do something too much’
    食べる ⇒ 食べすぎる; する ⇒ しすぎる; 高い ⇒ 高すぎる; しずかな ⇒ しずかすぎる

    • 食べすぎると、おなかが(いた)くなりますよ。
      If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.
  16. 以上(いじょう) = ‘more than ~’
    • 一学期に十五単位(たんい)以上()ると大変(たいへん)だと思います。
      I think it will be hard to carry more than fifteen credits a semester.

Chapter 5 文法ノート

  1. ~に気がつく = ‘to notice ~’
    This expression can be used either with a noun or a phrase (sentence + の or こと).

    • 間違(まちが)いに気がつきませんでした。
      I wasn’t aware of my mistake.
    • 宿題(しゅくだい)を忘れたことに気がついたのは、クラスが始まってからだった。
      It was after the class started that I noticed that I had forgotten my homework.
  2. せっかく
    せっかく indicates that something has been done with a great deal of trouble, that someone has spent a great deal of time to reach a certain state.

    • 人がせっかく作ってくれた料理を食べないのは失礼(しつれい)だ。
      It’s impolite not to eat food which someone has taken the trouble of preparing for you.
    • せっかく(なら)った漢字は忘れないようにしましょう。
      Please try not to forget kanji, which you have spent considerable time and energy to learn.
  3. ~わけにはいかない
    [V (plain, non-past, affirmative) わけにはいかない] means that one cannot do certain things for social/moral/situational reasons.

    • 普通のアメリカのパーティーで日本語を話すわけにはいきません。
      We can’t very well speak Japanese at a normal American party.
    • これは先生の本だから、あなたに()すわけにはいきません。
      Since this is my teacher’s book, I can’t very well lend it to you.

    When the negative form is used with わけにはいかない, the meaning is affirmative – i.e., it has the sense of ‘can’t help but do ~.’ One does not have any other choice.

    • 明日試験(しけん)があるから、今晩(こんばん)勉強(べんきょう)しないわけにはいきません。
      Since I have an exam tomorrow, I cannot help but study tonight.
  4. そうかと言って
    This phrase is used to qualify the preceding statement. It is often followed by ~わけにはいかない, ~わけではない, etc.

    • A: 寮の食事はまずいねえ。
      Dormitory food is bad!
      B: うん、でも、そうかと言って食べないわけにもいかないし。
      Yes, but we still have to eat, so…
  5. V (past) 上で = ‘upon V-ing; after V-ing’
    • そのお話は、両親(りょうしん)相談(そうだん)した上でお返事(へんじ)します。
      On that matter, I will reply after I have consulted with my parents.
    • 大切(たいせつ)なことは、よく考えた上で()めた方がいいでしょう。
      You should decide important matters after considering them carefully.
  6. ために = ‘in order to’
    [V (plain, non-past) ために] indicates a purpose for one’s action.

    • このごろは(あそ)ぶためにアルバイトをする学生も多いそうだ。
      I hear that these days there are many students who work part-time so that they have money for fun.
    • キャロルは、試験の日を()えてもらうために先生の研究室(けんきゅうしつ)へ行った。
      Carol went to her teacher’s office in order to ask him to change an exam date.

    When ため is followed by の, the phrase modifies a following noun.

    • LLはテープを聞くための部屋(へや)です。
      A language lab is a room for listening to tapes.
  7. ~ても
    [V/Adj (て-form) + も] means that ‘even when one does ~’ or ‘even if one does ~.’ With the sense of ‘even when/if,’ the main sentence is usually in the non-past. Nouns and な-adjectives can take the form of ~であっても (e.g. しずかであっても、学生であっても), but they are usually contracted to ~でも (e.g. しずかでも、学生でも).

    • 日本へ行く前に日本文化について勉強しておけば、日本へ行ってもカルチャー・ショックは受けないでしょう。
      If you study Japanese culture before you go to Japan, you won’t have culture shock even when you go there.
  8. ~ず
    ず is a negative form in classical Japanese. The modern equivalent is ない. The form ず often appears in contemporary Japanese (especially in written style). ず is used between clauses with the sense of なくて/ないで , or in the form ずに with the sense of ‘without doing such and such.’ Verbs conjugate with ず in the same manner as with ない (e.g., 読む ⇒ 読まない⇒ 読まず, 貸す⇒ 貸さない⇒ 貸さず, くる ⇒ こない⇒ こず) with the exception of せず for する.

    • 寝ずに勉強すると病気になるでしょう。
      If you study without sleeping, you will get sick.
  9. Causative-passive: 買わされる = ‘be made to buy’
    This is a shortened variation of a causative-passive form 買わせられる. ーせられる is often contracted to ーされる, unless the resulting form duplicates さ. (e.g., 話させられる is not contracted to *話さされる.)

    • たいていー学期に一つは論文を書かされる
      In general, we are made to write at least one paper a semester.
    • 長い間待たされるのはだれでもいやだ。
      Nobody likes to be kept waiting for a long time.
  10. ~によると = ‘according to ~’
    This expressing is used to indicate a source of information and is generally followed by an expression such as [V (plain) そうだ] indicating hearsay.

    • 天気予報(よほう)によると、今日は午後(ごご)雨が()るそうだ。
      According to the weather forecast, it will rain this afternoon.
  11. 代わり
    [S1 (plain) 代わり S2] is used to state that a certain thing (or person, situation, etc.) has both good and bad aspects. It has the sense that one compensates for the other.

    • ウィスコンシンは、冬(さむ)い代わり、夏は(すず)しい。
      Wisconsin is cold in winter but cool in summer
    • ニューヨークは、面白い代わりお金がかかる。
      New York is interesting but expensive.
  12. いったん~ば = ‘Once you do something, …’
    • 日本の会社は、いったん入ればやめさせられることはないと言われている。
      It is said that once you are employed by a Japanese company, you won’t be fired.

    When the sentence expresses a negative consequence, いったん~ is preferred.

    • いったん日本語の勉強をやめると、すぐ忘れてしまうでしょう。
      Once you stop studying Japanese, you will forget it quickly.
  13. ~にとって = ‘for ~; to ~’
    • 日本人にとっては普通(ふつう)のことでも、外国人にとっては(へん)に見えることも多いだろう。
      There are probably lots of things which seem normal to Japanese but strange to a foreigner.
    • 日本の大学生にとって、友人との()()いが一番重要(じゅうよう)なことだ。
      For Japanese college students, friendship is the most important thing.

Chapter 6 文法ノート

  1. ~って
    In Japanese, it is very important to distinguish the information you obtain through secondary sources (what you have heard or read) from what you know firsthand. When one does not have firsthand knowledge of what one is saying, reportive expressions like って, (plain form) そうです、と言っていました、らしいです or the like should be used.

    • 東京の冬はあまり寒くないんだってねえ。
      I hear winter in Tokyo is not too cold [is that right?]
    • 日本へ行けば、英語を教えるアルバイトならたくさんあるって聞きました。
      I heard that there are lots of part-time jobs teaching English once you get to Japan.
  2. ~ことは(~が)
    [V/Adj ことは V/Adj] is generally used to qualify one’s statement, with the meaning ‘it is the case that …, but …’ If one is talking of a past fact, the second V/Adj is put in the past tense.

    な-adjective: しずかなことはしずかです
    い-adjective: 寒いことはさむいです
    Verb: 食べることは食べます

    • (らん)」という映画は面白いことは面白いが、ちょっと長すぎる。
      The movie called “Ran” is interesting, but it’s a little too long.
    • 日本の高校生は勉強することはしますが、入学試験(にゅうがくしけん)のための勉強ばかりですから、自分の意見(いけん)を作るためには(やく)()っていないようです。
      Japanese high school students do study a lot, but since all they do is study for entrance examinations, it does not seem to contribute to forming their own opinions.
    • 作文(さくぶん)を書くことは書いたが、間違(まちが)いが多かっただろうと思うと、()ずかしい。
      I did write a composition, but I am sure there were lots of mistakes, and I feel embarrassed.
  3. でいいです / Nでけっこうです = ‘N will do; N will suffice’
    • 辞書は、一冊でいいでしょうか
      Would one dictionary do?
    • お茶でけっこうです。
      [Green] tea would be fine.
  4. ~とは(かぎ)らない = ‘it is not necessarily the case that ~; it does not mean that ~’
    • 日本語を勉強している学生がみんな日本へ行くとは限らない。
      It’s not necessarily the case that students who are studying Japanese will all be going to Japan.

    This expression is often used with an adverb 必ずしも.

    • 高いものが必ずしもみんなよいとは限らない。
      Expensive things are not necessarily good.
  5. ~化
    This suffix attaches mainly to kanji compounds and expresses the idea of ~になる or ~にする.

    • 戦後(せんご)日本はずいぶん西洋化(せいようか)した。
      Since the war, Japan has become quite westernized.
    • 映画(えいが)化された小説(しょうせつ)は多い。
      There are many novels which have been made into movies.
  6. ~時 / ~前に / ~あと = ‘when ~ / before ~ / after ~’
    The verb which precedes 前に is always in the non-past tense form. Contrast this with [V (past) + あと] ‘after V.’ In general, when an action verb occurs in clauses such as 時, 前に, あと, etc., the past tense form indicates that an embedded action will occur (or occurred) before the main action. The non-past tense form indicates that an embedded action will occur (or occurred) either simultaneously with or after the main action.

    • この辞書は、日本へ行った時買いました。
      I bought this dictionary when I went to Japan [i.e., while I was in Japan].
    • この辞書は、日本へ行く時買いました。
      I bought this dictionary when I went to Japan [before or on the way to Japan].
    • 辞書は、日本へ行った時買います。
      As for a dictionary, I will buy it when I get to Japan [after I get to Japan].
  7. 何 + counter も = ‘many ~’
    • 日本へは何度も行ったことがあります。
      I have been to Japan many times.
    • 中華料理屋(ちゅうかりょうりや)はなん(けん)もあります。
      There are many Chinese restaurants.

    cf. 何十(さつ)も ‘dozens of volumes (lit., tens of volumes)’ 一 + counter も + negative ‘not even one’

    • 翻訳(ほんやく)をする人は、辞書を何十冊も持っているそうです。
      I hear people who translate have dozens of dictionaries.
    • 日本へ行ったことは、一度もありません。
      I have not been to Japan, even once.
  8. ~か~かと(心配(しんぱい)した) = ‘worried whether ~ or ~’
    • チップを十パーセントにしようか十五パーセントにしようかと心配しなくていい。
      One does not have to worry whether to leave a 10% tip or a 15% tip.
    • おすしにしようか天ぷらにしようかと(まよ)った。
      I had trouble making up my mind whether to have sushi or tempura.
  9. ~のではないだろうか
  10. – ‘I think it might be the case that ~’

    This is a less assertive, more indirect way of expressing one’s opinion. By saying もっと宣伝(せんでん)されてもいいのではないだろうか, the speaker/writer thinks that it should be publicized more. のではないだろうか is used here because the speaker/writer does not want to put forth this opinion too strongly. In colloquial speech, のではない is contracted to んじゃない. This expression generally follows a sentence in plain form (e.g., 行くのではないだろうか, 悪いのではないだろうか, 必要(ひつよう)ないのではないだろうか), but nouns and な-adjectives, in their affirmative non-past-tense form, occur as 習慣(しゅうかん)のではないだろうか or 簡単(かんたん)のではないだろうか.

    • サービスが悪い時は、チップを(はら)わなくてもいいのではないでしょうか。
      I wonder if it’s all right [I think it’s all right] not to leave a tip when service is bad.
    • 予約(よやく)をしていかないと、入れないのではないだろうか。
      I fear we won’t be able to get in unless we make a reservation in advance.

    ~のではないだろうか can be followed by と思う、心配する. In such cases, it takes a shortened form のではないか.

    • 最近(さいきん)日本語のできる外国人も()えてきているのではないかと思います。
      I think the number of foreigners who can speak Japanese has increased recently.
  11. むしろ = ‘rather’
    むしろ is used when, of two alternatives, one is more ~ than the other; one is preferable to the other; one fits the description better than the other, etc.

    • 今の日本の若者(わかもの)より、アメリカで日本語を勉強したアメリカ人の方が、むしろ敬語(けいご)の使い方などをよく知っているのではないだろうか。
      I wonder if it might be the case that Americans who study Japanese in America, rather than the Japanese youth, are better able to use honorifics.
    • 夏のかぜは冬のかぜよりむしろ(なお)りにくいから、気をつけてください。
      A summer cold is even harder to get rid of than a winter cold, so take care.

    Often, when むしろ is used, there is a certain general or contextual expectation that the opposite is true.

Chapter 7 文法ノート

  1. V (plain) ようにする
    V (plain) ようにする means ‘to make an effort to do something’ or ‘to make a point of doing something.’

    • 日本語は毎日勉強するようにしてください。
      Please try to study Japanese every day.
    • (あそ)ぶお金は、アルバイトでかせぐようにしています。
      I make a point of earning my spending money by working part time.
  2. V (stem) 始める = ‘begin V-ing’
    • ミステリーは、読み始めると止められません。
      You can’t stop reading a mystery novel once you start reading [it].
    [V (stem) ()わる] indicates ‘finish V-ing.’

    • 午前三時にやっと論文(ろんぶん)を書き終わりました。
      I finally finished writing a paper at 3 a.m.
  3. S1 V(stem) S2
    The stem of a V-ます form (e.g., tabe, tsukuri, iki) can be used in place of V-て form to connect two sentences. This use is generally restricted to written style.

    • 野球(やきゅう)上手(じょうず)選手(せんしゅ)(あつ)めてチームを作り、アメリカ・チームと試合(しあい)をした。
      They formed a team by gathering good baseball players and played games with the American team.
    • 多くのチームが甲子園(こうしえん)(あつ)まり、二週間のトーナメントをする。
      A number of teams gather together at Koshien for a two-week tournament.
  4. Question word + ~ても
    Question words (何、いつ、だれ、どこ、何度、etc.) followed by て-forms followed by も indicate ‘no matter what/when/who/where/how often,’ etc.

    • 何を食べても(ふと)らない人うらやましいです。
      I envy people who never get fat no matter what they eat.
    • 東京の町は、どこへ行っても人()んでいます。
      Tokyo is crowded with people no matter where you go.
  5. ~を始め = ‘starting with ~; including ~; not to mention ~’
    This phrase introduces the most obvious example, as in the following examples.

    • アメリカではフットボールを始め、バスケット、アイスホッケーなどのスポーツも(さか)んです。
      In America, sports such as basketball and ice hockey, not to mention football, are popular.
    • 黒沢明(くろさわあきら)は、「羅生門(らしょうもん)」を始め、「七人(しちにん)(さむらい)」「(らん)」など、多くの名画(めいが)監督(かんとく)である。
      Akira Kurosawa is the director of many famous movies such as Seven Samurai and Ran, not to mention Rashomon.
  6. ~的 = ‘~type; ~ic; ~ical’
    ~的 is a suffix which attaches to nouns (mostly kanji compounds0 and forms な-adjectives. ~的に is an adverbial form. Its meaning varies depending on the words, but in [X は Y 的] it often indicates that X has a characteristic quality of Y or X has something to do with Y.

    • 日本的なおみやけと言うと、着物(きもの)とか扇子(せんす)などだろう。
      A typical Japanese souvenir might be a kimono or a fan.
    • 日常(にちじょう)会話(かいわ)で「です」「ます」を使うと、女性(じょせい)的に聞こえるらしい。
      It seems that speaking in the desu/masu style in casual situations sounds feminine.
    • 最近(さいきん)では、どの国でもエネルギーを経済(けいざい)的に使おうとしている。
      In recent years, every country is making an attempt to use energy efficiently [economically].
  7. 何と言っても = ‘undeniably; no doubt; by any account’
    • 日本の映画監督(えいがかんとく)の中で(もっと)有名(ゆうめい)なのは、何と言っても黒沢明(くろさわあきら)だろう。
      The most famous movie director in Japan by any account must be Akira Kurosawa.
    • 日本が経済大国(けいざいたいこく)になれたのは、何と言ってもアメリカのおかげだろう。
      No doubt it was thanks to America that Japan became and economic power.
  8. 面白いことに
    [面白い + ことに] introduces the content of what is interesting in the remainder of the sentence. Any adjective or verb which expresses a speaker’s emotional response can be similarly used.

    • (おどろ)いたことに、アメリカの大学では、先生が学生をファースト・ネームで()んでいるのだ。
      To my surprise, teachers call students by their first names at American universities.
    • 面白いことに、十世紀(せいき)から十一世紀に日本で有名(ゆうめい)作家(さっか)は、みんな女性(じょせい)であった。
      Interestingly, famous writers in tenth and eleventh century Japan were all women.

Chapter 8 文法ノート

  1. XはYくらいです=’Y is about the X.’
    • 日本人がのんびりできるのは、大学生の時くらいかもしれない。
      College years might be the only time when the Japanese can relax.
    • (おし)えた経験(けいけん)は、ボランティアで子供に日本語を教えたくらいです。
      About the only teaching experience [I have] is teaching Japanese to children as a volunteer.
  2. やっぱり= ‘as expected; also; again’
    やっぱりis a conversational form of やはり. It is an adverb which indicates that what is being said is what is expected from our general or specific knowledge.

    • ジョン・ケネディは政治家(せいじか)だった。彼の(おとうと)たちもやはり政治家になった。
      John Kennedy was a politician. His brothers also became politicians.
    • 漢字は面白いですが、やっぱり(おぼ)得るのに時間がかかります。
      Kanji are interesting, but [as might be expected] they take a long time to learn.
  3. ~さえ~ば = ‘if only you ~’
    This expression states a sufficient condition for attaining a desired result. さえ can be attached to a noun, a verb stem and the て-form of a verb, as in the following:
    NさえV(ば-form): くすりさえ飲めば
    V(stem)さえすれば: くすりを飲みさえすれば
    V(て-form)さえいれば: くすりを飲んでさえいれば

    Particles が, を, は and も are dropped when さえ is attached, but other particles are retained as in クラスにさえ出れば. ば is a conditional form.

    • 運動(うんどう)さえすれば病気(びょうき)になりません。
      If you don’t want to get sick, all you have to do is exercise.
    • ()さえすれば(なお)ります。
      If you only sleep, you will get better.
    • クラスに出てノートをとってさえいれば、だいじょうぶです。
      If you only attend classes and take notes, you will do fine.

    In some cases, there is a choice between NさえVば or Vさえすれば as in the following examples:

    • くすりさえ飲めば、(なお)ります。
      If only you would take your medicine, you would get better.

    When さえ is attached to a noun, さえ emphasizes that noun. Hence the first example above implies that one only has to take medicine and no other substance. The second example, on the other hand, emphasizes the action of taking medicine as opposed to other actions such as sleeping, listening to music, etc.

  4. ~はず
    ~はず, which means ‘supposed to,’ ‘expected to,’ expresses one’s conjecture with some certainty. It follows noun + の, な-adjective な, and plain forms of verbs and い-adjectives.

    • 今日は日曜日だから、銀行(ぎんこう)は休みのはずです。
      It’s Sunday today, and so banks are supposed to be closed.
    • 日本に()んでいたから日本語が上手なはずです。
      His Japanese should be good since he lived in Japan.
    • 中古なら安いはずです。
      If it’s a used one, it should be cheap.
    • 日本語の三年になれば、日本語の新聞(しんぶん)が読めるはずです。
      Students who are in Third Year Japanese should be able to read newspapers in Japanese.
  5. ~みたい
    みたい is a colloquial form of ようだ. Unlike ようだ, みたい follows bare nouns (e.g. 日本人みたい) and な-adjective stem (e.g. にぎやかみたい). Like ようだ, it follows plain forms of い-adjectives and verb (e.g. 安いみたい; 行くみたい).

    • こんな高いものを買わされて、ばかみたい。
      I feel stupid being forced into buying an expensive thing like this.
    • なかなか仕事がないみたいだね。
      It seems difficult to find a job.
    • 来年結婚(けっこん)するみたいよ。
      It looks like [he] is going to get married next year.
  6. ~として = ‘as ~’
    • 英語の教師(きょうし)として日本へ行くアメリカ人は、年々増えているようだ。
      It seems that the number of Americans who go to Japan as English teachers is increasing every year.
    • チョムスキーは、言語学者としてよりも政治(せいじ)運動で有名かもしれない。
      Chomsky is perhaps more famous for his political activities than as a linguist.
  7. ~ため(に) = ‘because (of); due to’
    ~ため(に)follows a noun + の, な-adjective な-form and plain forms of い-adjectives and verbs. It indicates the reason or cause for the following clause. ~ため is a formal expression, and hence is used in writing or in formal situations.

    • 大雪(おおゆき)のためフライトがキャンセルされた。
      The flight was cancelled because of heavy snow.
    • 漢字は複雑(ふくざつ)な、覚えるのに時間がかかる。
      Kanji take a long time to learn because of their complexity.

    ~ため(に) also indicates a purpose for an action. Whether ため(に) is interpreted as a “purpose” or “reason” partly depends on the context. However, if ため(に) follows an adjective or a verb which indicates a state such as 分かる, できる, ある, etc., it always indicates a “reason.” (Past-tense forms, too, always indicate reasons.)

    • 日本語を勉強するため(に)、日本へ行った。
      He went to Japan in order to study Japanese.
    • 日本語を勉強したため(に)、日本へ行った。
      He went to Japan because he studied Japanese.