An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese — Chapters 9-15

These notes are mostly a reproduction of the 文法ノート sections of the chapters in the textbook, An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese by Akira Miura & Naomi Hanaoka McGloin.

Chapter 9 文法ノート

  1. Xより仕方(しかた)がない = ‘to have no choice but to ~’
    This expression means that X is not what one normally wants to do but one has no choice but to do it.

    • お金がない時は、アルバイトをするより仕方がない。
      When you have no money, you don’t have any choice but to work part-time.
    • 車がないから、歩いて行くより仕方がない。
      Since I don’t have a car, I have no alternative but to go on foot.
  2. Vれる/られる
    The Vれる/られる form, which is homophonous to the passive form, may be used as 尊敬語(そんけいご) (honorific form), as in the following examples.

    • 先生、本を書かれたそうですが、いつご出版(しゅっぱん)予定(よてい)でしょうか。
      Professor, I hear you have written a book. When is it scheduled to be published?
    • 先生がアメリカへ来られたころは、今とずいぶん違っていたんでしょうね。
      {Talking to a professor} When you came to America, things were very different from what they are now, weren’t they?

    This form is not as polite as regular honorific forms such as お~になる、いらっしゃる, etc., but it is widely used especially in men’s speech, newspapers, and other formal writings. There is no ~れる/られる forms for verbs such as 分かる and できる.

  3. せめて(~ば)= ‘at least’
    • 漢字をたくさん習いたいが、時間がないので、せめて教育漢字(きょういくかんじ)は読み書きできるようになりたい。
      I want to learn lots of kanji, but I don’t have much time. I would like to be able to read and write at least Kyoiku Kanji, though.
    • せめて一度は日本へ行ってみたいと思う人が多いだろう。
      There must be lots of people who would like to visit Japan at least once.
    • 毎晩せめて一時間ぐらいは日本語を勉強してもらいたいものだ。
      I would like [them] to spend at least one hour every night studying Japanese.
    • (おっと)にせめてお皿荒(ざらあら)いぐらいしてもらいたいと思う主婦(しゅふ)は多いだろう。
      There must be many wives who want their husbands to wash dishes, at least.

    This expression is used only when there is an implication that more of something is desirable. The use of くらい/ぐらい makes the statement less specific in the sense that the speaker gives an item or number just as an example.

  4. X ようにY = ‘Do Y so that X’; ‘Do Y in such a way that X happens’
    In this construction, X often contains a potential verb, negative form or stative verb, which normally can’t be controlled by one’s will. Although X can be any plain non-past verb, it is most commonly used with potential verb forms.

    • 私が読めるように、字をきれいに書いて下さい。
      So that I can read it, please write characters neatly.
    • みんなが(たの)しめるようにチョコレートをあけた。
      I gave [them] chocolate so that they can all enjoy it.
    • 忘れないように書いておいてください。
      Please write it down so that you won’t forget.
    • 日本へ行けるようにお金をためています。
      I am saving money so that I can go to Japan.
  5. ~く/~に見える(なー形容詞(けいようし)/いー形容詞が adverbial form になる)= ‘seems…; appears…’
    • 山田さんは70才なのに若く見えますね。
      Even though Mrs. Yamada is 70 years old, she looks young.
    • 日本の伝統的(でんとうてき)な文化を知らない外国の観光客(かんこうきゃく)にはさむらいが無気味(ぶきみ)にみえるだろう。
      For foreign tourists that don’t know about traditional Japanese culture, samurai must seem strange.
    • いつも元気に見える。
      [He] always seems to be in good health.

    見える? 見られる?
    With見える someone or something is passively/spontaneously visible regardless of the volition of the speaker. Thus, it is different from the regular potential form of 見る (which is 見られる). 見られる indicates that the speaker CAN see actively.

    • そこから黒板(こくばん)が見えますか。
      Can you see the blackboard from over there (can it be seen over there)?
    • どこでその映画が見られますか。
      Where are you able to see that movie?
    • 友達は目が見えない。
      My friend is blind.
    • テレビを買ったから、アメフトが見られる。
      Because I bought a TV, I am [now] able to watch American football.
  6. こそ
    こそ is a particle which emphasizes a word, phrase, or clause. こそgenerally replaces が/を/も/は, but is attached to other particles, as in ~へこそ、~でこそ, etc.
    名詞+ (助詞) + こそ:in particular

    • A: どうもすみません。
      I’m sorry.
    • B: いいえ、こちらこそ。
      No, it’s ME who should say sorry.
    • 来年こそ日本へ行きます。
      I will go to Japan next year definitely.
    • トンガこそ行くべきですよ。
      Tonga is the place you shouldn’t miss.
    • 彼こそ私達(わたしたち)がさがしていた水藤星人だ。
      He is the very 水藤星人we have been looking for.

    動詞 (te-form)+こそ: only if/when

    • みんなで助け合ってこそ、いいプロジェクトができるんでしょう。
      Only if (when) everyone helps each other will a good project be possible.
    • 日本へ行ってこそ、日本語が上手になるんだろう。
      Only if/when you go to will you become good at Japanese.
    • ひとりでやってこそ勉強になるんだ。
      You can learn something only when you do it by yourself.

    Cause/reason clause+こそ: It is precisely because

    • 下手だからこそ、もっと練習(れんしゅう)しなければいけない。
      It is precisely because [I’m] good that I need to practice more.
    • あの子こそももちゃんだ。
    • できないからこそ、他の人よりたくさん勉強しなければならないんだ。
      It is precisely because I can’t do it that I have to study more than other people.
  7. X と言ってもY = ‘It is true that X, but Y; Although I said X, Y’
    A phrase that is used to clarify a statement in the preceding discourse which might be misleading. と言っても follows plain forms, but a copula だ is generally omitted. In this expression, Y is given to qualify X.


    • 私のアパートは近くて便利です。便利と言っても、バスで20分もかかりますけどね。
      My apartment is close and convenient. Although it’s convenient, it still takes as much as 20 minutes by bus.
    • A: うただひかるが親戚(しんせき)なんだって?
      Hikaru Utada is your relative?
    • : うん、でも親戚と言っても、(とお)い親戚なんだ。
      Yes, she is a relative, but she is a distant relative.

    Plain forms of (動詞、形容詞、copula) といっても

    • ポンコツ車を新しい車に交換(こうかん)したよ。交換したと言っても、1万ドルも払ったけどね。
      I traded my used car for a new one. Although I said I traded it, I did pay $10,000.
    • ブッシュは若いですね。若いと言っても、50代ですけどね。
      Bush is young, isn’t he? It is true that he is young, but he is 50 years old.
    • 寒いと言っても、(みずうみ)(こお)ることはありません。
      Although I said it’s cold, the lakes never freeze.
  8. ただ~だけ/しか = An adverb which emphasizes the idea of “just, only.”
    ただ+名詞+ だけ(しか)

    • ただ単語(たんご)だけ覚えても、外国語は上手になりません。
      If you only learn vocabulary, you won’t become good at a foreign language.
    • ただお金の事しか考えていない人は困ります。
      [People] who think only of money are annoying.


    • 彼とはただ一緒に教会(きょうかい)へ行っただけです。恋人というわけじゃないですよ。
      I only went with him to church. That doesn’t mean that he’s my boyfriend.
    • 別に大した事ではないんです。ただちょっと聞いてみたかっただけです。
      It isn’t a particularly important thing. I only want to try to hear it a little.
  9. どんな+ 名詞 +(助詞)+でも = ‘no matter what (who, where) it may be’

    • どんな所でも、住めば(みやこ)だ。
      No matter where it may be, there is no place like home. / Any place is home once you live there.
    • 私はどんな季節(きせつ)でも好きだ。
      I like all seasons (no matter what season it is, I like it).
    • バレンタインデイにもらったチョコがどんなチョコでも、ホワイトデイにはお返しをするべきだ。
      No matter what kind of chocolates you receive on Valentines Day, you should give a return gift on White Day.

Chapter 10 文法ノート

  1. 分数(ぶんすう) (fraction)
    分数 (fraction) is expressed in Japanese by [(number)分の(number)]. Notice that in Japanese, a denominator comes before a numerator, as in 五分の一(=1/5), 三分の二(=2/3), etc.
  2. Sentence ほど
    [S1ほどS2] means ‘S2 to the extent S1,’ or ‘it is so S2 that S1.’ S1 is generally in plain forms.

    • インドカレーは、なみだが出るほどからいことがある。
      Sometimes, Indian curry is so hot that it brings tears to your eyes.
    • (うご)けないほどおなかがいっぱいです。
      I am so full that I can’t move.
    • 東京は、びっくりするほど人が多い。
      Tokyo has an amazingly large number of people.

    This construction can be paraphrased to [S2(て-form), S1ほどです], as below.

    • インドのカレーはからくて、なみだがでるほどです。
  3. 何よりも = ‘more than anything’
    • 今、何よりも車がほしいですねえ。
      Right now, I want a car more than anything.
    • 何よりも健康(けんこう)が一番です。
      Health is the most important thing in the world.
  4. (Xは)Yに(かぎ)
    Y in this construction can be either a noun or a verb in non-past plain form. This construction means ‘As for X, Y is the best thing to do; As for X, there is nothing better than Y.’

    • (あつ)い日には(つめ)たいビールを飲むに限る。
      Drinking cold beer is the best thing to do on a hot day.
    • 古い都を訪ねたければ、京都にかぎります。
      If you want to visit an old city, Kyoto is the best place.
  5. ~まま
    まま is attached to nouns, adjectives and verbs, and indicates that the condition/situation (described in the まま-clause) is unchanged. It can be attached to N の, な-adjective な, い-adjective in plain non-past tense form and verb in plain past tense form.

    • 京都には(むかし)のままのお寺や神社(じんじゃ)が多い。
      There are many old temples and shrines in Kyoto.
    • 日本(しゅ)(つめ)たいまま飲んでもおいしい。
      Japanese rice wine tastes good even cold.
    • (まど)をあけたまま()ると、かぜを()く。
      If you go to sleep with the window open, you will catch cold.
    • どうぞそのままいらしてください。
      Please come as you are.
    • 人からお金を()りたまま返さないのは、よくない。
      It’s not good not to return the money one has borrowed from other people.

Chapter 11 文法ノート

  1. ~もんですから/ものですから = ‘because ~’
    This pattern is used to present a reason for a situation. It is often used to give a reason for a situation where the speaker feels sorry for what happened, but where the consequence was unavoidable because of the reason he/she gives.

    • 先生:どうしたんですか。ずいぶん(おそ)いですね。
      What happened? You are late!
      I am sorry. It’s because my parents called me just when I was about to leave the home.
    • 学生(女):どうしたの。三十分も待ったのよ。
      What happened? I’ve been waiting for half an hour?
      Sorry! I came by car but the traffic was incredibly heavy [so I couldn’t help being late].
  2. ~うちに
    There are two kinds of ~うちに. When うちに is preceded by nouns, adjectives and verbs (stative or in progressive form), it expresses the sense of ‘while a certain situation holds’.

    • 学生のうちに旅行(りょこう)をした方がいい。
      One should travel while still a student.
    • (しず)かなうちに勉強をしておこう。
      I will get my study done while it is still quiet.
    • 若いうちに自分のしたいことをしておくといい。
      You should do what you want to do while you are still young.
    • 日本にいるうちに、一度富士山(ふじさん)(のぼ)りたいと思います。
      I would like to climb Mt. Fuji while I am in Japan.
    • 話しているうちに時間が()ってしまった。
      Time flew by while we were talking.

    When うちに is preceded by a negative verb form, it expresses the meaning of ‘before something happens.’

    • あまり(おそ)くならないうちに帰った方がいいでしょう。
      You should go home before it gets too late.
    • 母に(しか)られないうちに宿題(しゅくだい)をします。
      I will do my homework before my mother scolds me.
  3. Xが気になる = ‘~ weighs on one’s mind; to be concerned about ~’
    In this construction, X can be either a noun or a sentence nominalized by attaching の.

    • 成績が気になります。
      I am worried about my grade[s].
    • ホームステイの学生の家族(かぞく)から手紙(てがみ)一通(いちつう)も来ないのが気になります。
      I am bothered by the fact that my host student’s family has not even written a single letter to me.
  4. どうしても
    This phrase can be used with either a negative or affirmative predicate. In a negative sentence, it means ‘can’t do [it] no matter how hard one tries.’ In an affirmative sentence, it has the sense of ‘by all means’.

    • どうしても分からない時は、先生に聞いてください。
      When you don’t understand no matter how hard you try, please ask your teacher.
    • うそは、どうしても言えません。
      I can’t tell a lie no matter what.
    • どうしても一度日本へ行ってみたい。
      I would like to go to Japan once, no matter what.
  5. つい = ‘inadvertently; involuntarily’
    • 言ってはいけないことがつい口にでることがある。
      Sometimes, we accidentally say things we should not say.
    • 話をしていて、つい時間を忘れてしまった。
      I was talking and lost track of time.
  6. ~に気をつける = ‘to pay attention to ~; to be careful of ~’
    • 日本語を話す時は、アクセントに気をつけてください。
      When you speak Japanese, please watch for pitch patterns.
    • A: じゃ、明日出発(しゅっぱつ)
      So, you are leaving tomorrow?
      B: うん。Yes
      A: じゃ、気をつけてね。
      Well, take care!

    気 is used in many idiomatic expressions in Japanese. The following are some of the expressions containing 気.
    ~に気がつく = ‘to realize; to notice’

    • 掲示板(けいじばん)()ってあるポスターに気がつきませんでした。
      I didn’t notice the poster on the bulletin board.
    • お金を()としたのに気がついたのは、家へ帰ってからでした。
      It was after I got home that I realized that I had lost my money.

    V (plain) + 気になる = ‘to bring oneself to do V; to feel like V-ing’

    • 金曜日の晩は勉強する気になりません。
      I don’t feel like studying on Friday nights.
    • やる気になれば、何でもできます。
      You can do anything if you put your mind to it.
  7. わざわざ = ‘to go out of one’s way to do something’
    • わざわざ出かけるのは大変(たいへん)だから、電話で話そう。
      It’s not easy to take the time to go, so I will talk on the phone.
    • 学生:この作文、書き直した方いいでしょうか。
      Do you think I should rewrite this composition?
      I don’t think you have to take the trouble to rewrite it.
  8. ~ようにお(ねが)いする = ‘to ask [someone] to do [something]’
    ~ように言う = ‘to ask [someone] to do [something]’
    ~ように(たの)む = ‘to ask [someone] to do [something]’
    ように in this construction indicates that it is an indirect quote of a command or a request. [V (plain, non-past) ように言う] is equivalent to a sentence with a direct quote such as [V-てくださいと言う] or [Vなさいと言う].

    • 先生に推薦状(すいせんじょう)を書くようにお願いした。
      I asked my teacher to write a letter of recommendation.
    • お母さんにショートパンツをはいて学校へ行かないように注意(ちゅうい)された。
      My host mother advised me not to go to school wearing shorts.
    • (よる)十一時までには帰ってくるように言われた。
      I was told to come home by 11 p.m.
  9. V (volitional) としたら = ‘when I was about to V’
    • デパートへ行こうとしたら、雨が()ってきた。
      When I was about to leave for the department store, it began to rain.
    • 電話で彼の声を聞いて、話そうとしたら、(なみだ)が出てきた。
      When I heard his voice and tried to talk, tears came to my eyes.
  10. (Xて、)Yくらいだ = ‘X, to the extent Y’
    くらい, like ほど, indicates the degree or extent of a situation, which is often expressed in Xて (or Xで). Y can be a な-adjective (e.g., 上手なくらいです), an い-adjective (e.g., (いた)いくらいです) or a verb (e.g., 行くくらいです).

    • アメリカにずっと住んでいるので、英語の方が日本語より上手なくらいです。
      He has lived in America so long that his English is almost better than his Japanese.
    • ごちそうがたくさんあって、全部(ぜんぶ)食べられないくらいでした。
      There was so much food that we almost could not eat it all.
    • 日本の人名(じんめい)は読み方がたくさんあって、日本人にも難しいくらいです。
      There are so many ways of reading Japanese names that they are even difficult for Japanese.

    The くらい phrase can precede the situation it is describing, as in [YくらいX]. The meaning, however, is the same as [Xて、Yくらいだ].

    • この読み物は(あたま)(いた)くなるくらい(むずか)しいです。
      This reading passage is so difficult that [to the extent that] I almost get a headache.
    • ときどき前が見えないくらい雨がひどく降ることがある。
      There are times when it rains so hard that you can hardly see anything in front of you.
  11. V (plain past) ものだ = ‘used to V’
    [V (plain, past) ものだ] is used to express something one used to do in the past, to reminisce about the past.

    • 子供のころは、よく(おとうと)とけんかをしたものだ。
      I used to fight with my brother a lot when I was a child.
    • 大学時代は、よく(あそ)びよく勉強したものだ。
      I used to play hard and study hard in my college days.
  12. V (stem) たて
    A suffix たて attached to a limited number of verbs (stem of ます-form) and means that something was just done.

    • ()きたてのパンはおいしい。
      Bread fresh from the oven is delicious.
    • ぬりたてのペンキに気をつけてください。
      Please watch out for wet paint.

Chapter 12 文法ノート

  1. ろくに~ない = ‘not much; not enough’
    This expression is always followed by a negative form of a predicate.

    • ろくに勉強もしないのに文句(もんく)ばかり言うのは困る。
      It’s not good to complain without studying much.
    • 病気の時は、ろくに食べられない。
      When you are sick, you can hardly eat anything.
  2. ~せか = ‘perhaps because’
    せい, without か, gives a reason or a cause.

    • 学生ができないのは先生のせいだろうか。
      Is it because of the teacher that students don’t do well?
    • 自分の間違(まちが)いを他人(たにん)のせいにするのは困る。
      It’s not good to blame others for your own mistakes.
    • それは気のせいだよ。
      It’s just your imagination.
    [S1せいか, S2] gives a possible reason for some undesirable situation in S2, meaning ‘Perhaps because S1, S2 holds.’

    • 試験(しけん)(わる)かったせいか、元気がない。
      [He] looks dispirited, perhaps because he did badly on the exam.
    • 期末(きまつ)試験が近いせいか、休みが多い。
      There are many absences, perhaps because the final exam is near.

    せい is a noun. So, it is preceded by Nの, な-adjective な, or plain forms of い-adjectives and verbs. When S2 represents a desirable situation, おかげで is used as below.

    • 先生に日本語を教えていただいたおかげで、にほんごが話せるようになりました。
      Thanks to your teaching, I have become able to speak Japanese.
  3. Vてごらんなさい = ‘try V-ing’
    This is a polite form of Vてみなさい. Since ~なさい is a form used by someone higher in status to give a command to someone lower in status, ~ごらんなさい cannot be used by a person lower in status. Vてごらん (e.g., 見てごらん) is a more informal variant of Vてごらんなさい, and is used, for example, by mothers in talking to children.

    • 少し休んでごらんなさい。きっと(らく)になりますよ。
      Go and rest for a while. I’m sure you will feel better.
  4. ~ぐらい
    Nぐらい, in this case, indicates that N is the minimum level, degree, etc. (e.g., easiest, lightest, etc.) ぐらい is often replaced by くらい.

    • おなかの(いた)い時、スープぐらいにした方がいいでしょう。
      When you have a stomachache, you should limit your diet to something light like soup.
    • 一年で(なら)った漢字ぐらい書けないと困ります。
      You should be able to write at least the kanji you learned in the first year.
  5. ~に()したことはない = ‘nothing can be better than ~’
    This expression is most frequently used with non-past plain forms of verbs.

    • 病気の時は()る越したことはない。
      When you are sick, sleeping is the best thing to do.
    • 日本語が話せるようになりたかったら、日本へ行くに越したことはないと思うけれど、まずアメリカでちゃんと勉強してから行った方がいいと思ういます。
      If you want to become proficient in Japanese, the best thing is to go to Japan, but I think you should first study properly [i.e., the basics] in America.
  6. 思うように = ‘as one wishes’
    • 仕事はなかなか思うように(はかど)らないものだ。
      Work generally does not get done as quickly as one wishes.
    • A: 論文(ろんぶん)はどうですか。(はかど)っていますか。
      How is the thesis coming along? Is it progressing well?
      B: なかなか思うように書けなくて困っています。
      I’m really troubled because I can’t write it to my satisfaction.
  7. ~がち = ‘to tend to ~; to be apt to ~; to be prone to ~’
    This suffix follows certain verbs (stems of ます-forms) and nouns, and expresses the idea that one tends to do something, something is more likely to happen, etc. It is negative in its implication.

    • 日本語が少し話せても読み書きは全然(ぜんぜん)できないというのは、外国人の場合(ばあい)ありがちなことだ。
      It is not unusual that a foreigner who can speak Japanese a little can’t read or write it at all.
    • アメリカではあまり遠慮(えんりょ)がちにしない方がいい。
      It is better not to be too modest in America.

Chapter 13 文法ノート

  1. たら/Nったら
    Nたら/ったらis often used in informal conversations to indicate the topic of a sentence. Compared with a は-marked topic, ~たら/ったら gives a sense of surprise, disbelief, reproach, or the like.

    • うちの母ったら、文句(もんく)ばかり言うのよ。
      My mother complains all the time [and I feel frustrated].
    • あの人ったら、こんなこというのよ。
      He said this. [Can you believe it?]
  2. よっぽど = ‘considerably; really; to a great extent’
    よっぽど is a colloquial form of よほど, which indicates that something is of a degree considerably greater than usual.

    • 普通(ふつう)のアメリカ人は大学の先生よほど(ひま)があると思っているようだ。
      Most Americans seem to think that university professors have a great deal of free time.
    • (りょう)の食事はよっぽどまずいらしい。
      It seems that the dormitory food is really bad.
  3. ~に(ちが)いない = ‘it must be ~’
    It follows nouns, stem forms of な-adjectives, plain forms of い-adjectives and verbs.

    • あんな大きな家に住んでいるんだから、よっぽど(らく)生活(せいかつ)をしているに違いない。
      Since he lives in a big house like that, he must be really well-off.
    • あそこでお辞儀(じぎ)をしているのは日本人に違いない。
      The person who is bowing over there must be a Japanese.
    • 韓国(かんこく)人にとって日本語はやさしいにちがいない。
      Japanese must be easy for Koreans to learn.
    • 電気のない生活は不便(ふべん)にちがいない。
      It must be inconvenient to live without electricity.
  4. さすが(に) = ‘indeed; as may be expected’
    さすが(に) gives a connotation that the speaker is favorably impressed with the state. It is preceded by [Sentence + だけあって].

    • 日本に十年も住んでいただけあって、さすが日本語が上手だ。
      Since he has lived in Japan for ten years, he speaks excellent Japanese indeed.
    • 習字(しゅうじ)の先生だけあって、さすがにすばらしい字だ。
      He is an excellent calligrapher, as may be expected of someone who teaches calligraphy.
  5. なんか/Nなんて
    Both なんか and なんて can follow a noun, with the meaning of ‘things (or people) like ~.’ Only なんて, however, can follow a sentence. なんて is a contraction of many forms such as などは、などと、などというのは or the like.

    • 助詞(じょし)なんか(なんて)(むずか)しいと思った。
      I thought things like particles were difficult.
    • 「私は」と「私が」がどう(ちが)うかなんて(=などというのは)、さっぱりわからなかった。
      I didn’t understand at all things like how watashi wa and watashi ga differ.
    • 敬語(けいご)を使わないと失礼(しつれい)になるなんて(=などと)言われたから、心配(しんぱい)しちゃった。
      Since I was told that it would be impolite if I don’t use keigo, I was worried.
  6. S1 ものの、S2 = ‘although S1, S2’
    ものの is a conjunction meaning “although,” and tends to be used in writing. It is similar to 「が」 and 「けれども」.

    ものなのに ⇒ ものの
    ~ものです ⇒ The speaker presents some situation as if it is a tangible object. “because; how could…!; used to…; should”

    • バカな事をしたものだ
      how could you do such a foolish thing.

    Plain form of い-形容詞 and 動詞 +ものの

    • なっとうは体にいいものの、だれも食べたがらない。
      Although natto is good for you
    • この別荘(べっそう)は大きくないものの、ねだんは(きわ)めて高 い。
      Even though this summer cottage is not big, it is very expensive.
    • 毎日五時間も勉強したものの、何の進歩(しんぽ)(みと)められなかった。
      Although I studied five hours every day, I didn’t notice any progress at all.

    名詞 + もののな

    • 学生であるものの
    • 学生ではないものの
    • 学生だったものの
    • 学生ではなかったものの

    なー形容詞  + ものの

    • 有名な(or である)ものの
    • 有名ではないものの
    • 有名だったものの
    • 有名ではなかったものの

    ~のに:personal involvement, emotive overtone

  7. (ぽう)で(は)= ‘on one hand; on the other hand’
    It is often used in a phrase一(ぽう)では~、他方(たほう)では~. However, one of the two, phrases is often omitted.

    • (はたら)女性(じょせい)(かず)年々(ねんねん)増えているが、一方で、重要(じゅうよう)なポストについている女性はきわめて少ない。
      The number of working women is increasing every year, but, on the other hand, women who hold important posts are quite few in number.

    • 日米関係(にちべいかんけい)は、一方では民間(みんかん)レベルの文化交流(ぶんかこうりゅう)(さか)んだが、他方では貿易摩擦(ぼうえきまさつ)が大きな問題(もんだい)となっている。
    • As for U.S.-Japan relations, while, on one hand, cultural exchange in the private domain is quite popular, on the other hand, trade friction is a big problem.

  8. 毎日のように = ‘almost every day’
    It means that it appears like everyday, although it is not actually every day. 日 can be replaced by 週, 月, 年, 回, 時間, etc.

    • キーんは、毎日のように中華料理(ちゅうかりょうり)を食べたそうだ。
      I hear Keene ate Chinese food almost every day.
    • 日本語のクラスでは、毎時間のように宿題(しゅくだい)がある。
      In Japanese class, we have homework for almost every class period.
  9. せいぜい = ‘at most’
    It indicates a maximum limit, which is still a small amount..

    • 大きいクラスでは、一時間にせいぜい一、二度()たればいい方がいい。
      In a large class, on a good day, you will be called on at most once or twice.
    • 日本のサラリーマンは、休みを取ったとしても、せいぜい四、五日でしょう。
      Japanese white-collar workers, when they take vacations, take at most four, five days.
    • Q: 一日に何時間勉強しますか。
      How many hours do you study each day?
      A: せいぜい1時間勉強すればいい方です。
      It’s pretty good if I study one hour at most (if any).
  10. ~ながら = ‘although’
    When, in [S1 ながら, S2], S1 contains a noun, adjective, or stative verb, it expresses the idea of ‘although S1, S2.’ Notice that, when S1, contains an action verb, ながら indicates two simultaneous actions. It is a disjunctive conjunction normally used in written Japanese.

    Stative 動詞 (pre-masu form) +ながら

    • 彼は日本にいながら、洋 ばかり べている。
      Although he is in Japan, he eats only western food.
    • 山田さんは明日試験があることを知りながら、私には(おし)えてくれなかった。
      Although Mr. Yamada knew about the test tomorrow, he didn’t tell me.
    • スコット・ピーターソンは結婚(けっこん)していながら、他の女の人と会っていた。
      Although Scott Peterson was married, he saw other women.
    • たばこが体によくないと分かっていながら、やめられない。
      While I know that tobacco is bad for your body, I cannot quit.

    名詞  + ながら

    • あの子は11才ながら、しっかりしている。
      Although that child is 11 years old, he/she is quite mature/reliable.
    • この車は中古車(ちゅうこしゃ)ながら、よく走る。
      Although this car is used, it runs well.

    形容詞 (辞書形) + ながら

    • この部屋(へや)はせまいながら、()心地(ごこち)がいい。
      Although this room is narrow, it is comfortable.
    • この(へん)不便(ふべん)ながら、車も少なく、空気(くうき)がきれいだ。
      Although this area is inconvenient, there are few cars and the air is clean.
    • 残念(ざんねん)ながら、行かれなくなりました。
      Unfortunately, I became unable to go.
  11. Nとしては = ‘for; considering’
    A compound particle which indicates a standard for comparisons.

    • 前田さんは、日本人としては英語が上手です。
      Maeda speaks good English for a Japanese.
    • 東京は、大都市(だいとし)としては犯罪(はんざい)が少ない。
      Tokyo has few crimes for a big city.
    • 一年生の教科書としては、かなり難しいですね。
      For a first year textbook, it is fairly difficult, isn’t it?

    Note the difference between としては and にしては, as below:

    • ~さんは日本 の一年生としては漢字をよく知っている。
      ~さんmay or may not be a first year Japanese student.
    • ~さんは日本 の一年生にしては漢字をよく知っている。
      ~さんis actually a first year Japanese student.
  12. S1 それにしてもS2 = ‘Even if S1 is true, S2; S1. Even so, S2’
    • 東京は物価(ぶっか)が高いと思っていたが、それにしても高いのには(おどろ)いた。
      I had expected that prices in Tokyo would be high, but even so, I was surprised how expensive everything was.
    • アメリカの高校(こうこう)は、課外活動(かがいかつどう)など十分できてよいと思うが、それにしてももう少し勉強させてもいいのではないだろうか。
      I think it’s great that American high school students can spend lots of time on extra-curricular activities, etc., but even so, wouldn’t it be better if they made students study a little more?
    • 日本の大学は、社会に出る前ののんびりできる時だと言われている。それにしても、(あそ)んでばかりいるわけにもいかないだろう。
      Japanese colleges are said to provide time for students to relax before they go out into the real world. Even so, I don’t think they should just goof around.
  13. ~限り = ‘as far as ~; long as ~’
    A conjunction which expresses the idea “as long as (a certain condition is met)” or “as long as (= to the extent).” It is used to set limits within which the following statement holds true. It generally follows plain forms of verbs and い-adjectives. Nouns are in である form (i.e., 日本人である限り), and な-adjectives are either in である-form or in な-form (i.e., (しず)かなかぎり). 動詞 (plain form) + 限り; い形容詞  + 限り

    • できる限りがんばります。
      I will try as much as possible.
    • 先生が来ない限り、テストが始まらない。
      As long as the teacher doesn’t come, the test won’t begin.

    名詞  + である(or でない) + 限り

    • 日本の学生である限り、漢字を勉強しないわけにはいかない。
      While (as long as) you are a student, you must study kanji.
    • 21才でない限り、お 酒は買えない。
      As long as you are not 21, you cannot buy alcohol.

    な形容詞  + である(or でない)/な + 限り

    • 元気な限り、働きなさい。
      As long as you are well, please work.
  14. かえって = ‘on the contrary’
    The adverb かえってis used when one describes a situation/event that occurs contrary to one’s expectation..

    • A: 一時間も(およ)いで、つかれたでしょう。
      You swam for an hour, you must be tired.
      B: いいえ、かえって元気になったよ。
    • o, on the contrary, I feel great.
    • 白いセーターを洗濯(せんたく)したら、かえってきたなくなた。
      I washed a white sweater, and now it looks dirtier than before.
    • 機械(きかい)の使い方を読むと、かえって分からなくなることがある。
      When you read instructions for a machine, sometimes you get more confused.
    • 試験(しけん)の前の(ばん)に勉強しすぎると、かえってつまらない間違(まちが)いをすることがある。
      If you study too much the night before an exam, sometimes you end up making sill mistakes.

Chapter 14 文法ノート

  1. NにはNの~がある = ‘N has its own ~’
    • 親には親の生活がある。
      Parents have their own lives [to live].
    • 子供(こども)には子供の(かんが)えがあるんだから、まず聞いてやることが必要(ひつよう)だ。
      Children have their own ways of thinking, so we should first listen to them.
  2. N1はN1なりにV = ‘N1 does things in its own way’
    N1はN1なりのN2 = ‘N1 has its own N2’

    • アメリカにはアメリカなりのよさがあり、日本には日本なりのよさがあるから、どちらがいいとも言えない。
      Both America and Japan have their respective good points, so we can’t say one is better than the other.
    • A: もうちょっと勉強したら?
      Why don’t you study more?
      B: これでも、私は私なりにがんばっているつもりですけど。
      I am doing my best in my own way.
  3. ~くせに
    くせに, like のに expresses the idea of ‘although.’ However, くせに expresses the speaker’s feeling of displeasure, disgust or contempt. This phrase follows Nの, な-adjective な and plain form of い-adjectives and verbs.

    • 知っているくせに(おし)えてくれない。
      [He] does not tell me although [he] knows about it.
    • お金もないくせに高いものばかり買う人は(こま)ります。
      It’s too bad that there are people who have absolutely no money but keep buying expensive things.
    • 子供のくせに外で(あそ)びたがらないのは、困る。
      It’s troublesome when a child does not want to play outside.
    • 下手なくせにすぐやりたがる人はいやだ。
      A person who is poor at doing something but loves doing it is a big pain.
  4. ~っていう/という理由(りゆう)で = ‘for such and such a reason’
    っていう is a colloquial form of という, and this phrase follows a sentence in a plain form.

    • ほかのコースの勉強が(いそが)しいという理由で宿題(しゅくだい)をしてこない学生もいます。
      There are students who don’t do homework saying that they are too busy studying for other courses.
    • 日本では結婚(けっこん)するという理由で会社をやめる女性が多い。
      Many Japanese women quit companies for the reason of marriage.
    • 日本では女性は結婚(けっこん)してやめるっていう理由で重要(じゅうよう)仕事(しごと)はさせてもらえないのが普通(ふつう)なんです。
      In Japanese companies, it is normal for women not to be given important positions for the [ostensible] reason that they will soon quit to get married.
  5. ~っぽい
    This suffix is attached to a limited set of nouns, stems of adjectives and stems of the verb (ます-form). It indicates that 1) something looks/appears like something else or 2) someone easily gets upset, forgets, etc. It generally carries a negative connotation.

    • 高いものでも色やデザインが(わる)いと、(やす)っぽくみえる。
      Even expensive things look cheap if they have distasteful colors and designs.
    • (さい)になっても子供っぽい人は困る。
      A person who acts childish no matter how old [he] gets is a problem.
    • 年を取ると忘れっぽくなる。
      When you get old you become forgetful.
    • 白いセーターはよごれっぽい。
      White sweaters get dirty easily.
  6. Nに関するN / Nに関してV = ‘with regard, concerning, about, on’
    ~に関するmodifies a noun and ~に関して modifies a verb; both mean ‘concerning.’

    • ここ十年の(あいだ)に女性に関する研究(けんきゅう)が盛んになった。
      Research concerning women has increased in the last ten years.
    • このごろは、コンピュータに関する知識(ちしき)がないと時代(おく)れになる。
      These days, if you don’t have knowledge about computers, you fall behind the times.
    • 日本の女性解放(かいほう)運動(うんどう)に関して資料(しりょう)(あつ)めているんです。
      I am collecting mat MIS concerning the women’s liberation movement in Japan.
  7. Xと(とも)にY
    X can be a noun or a verb- (plain form). X f) i~-. has two basic meanings.
    (1) Nと共に = ‘together with’, ‘along with’

    • 京都は奈良(なら)と供に日本の古い町である。
      Kyoto, together with Nara, is an old Japanese city.
    • (かぜ)と共にさりぬ」という映画を見たことがありますか。
      Have you seen the movie, “Gone With the Wind?”

    (2) Nと共に /V (plain, non-past) と共に This indicates that ‘as X happens, so does Y.’ It often indicates that two changes proceed simultaneously.

    • 年を取ると供に小さいことが気になるようになるらしい。
      It seems that as one grows older, one begins to worry more about trivial things.
    • 言葉(ことば)は時代と供に変化(へんか)する。
      Language changes with time.
  8. X を(は) Y にまかせる = ‘to leave/entrust X to Y’
    • 簡単(かんたん)なことは、機械(きかい)にまかせてもいいと思う。
      I think we can have machines do simple tasks.
    • 大切なことは、人にまかせない方がいい。
      It’s better not to leave important things to others.
    • コンピューターのことだったら、私にまかせて下さい。
      If it’s computer-related, leave it to me.
  9. XたびにY = ‘Every time X happens, Y also happens’
    動詞(non-past plain) たびに

    • 山田さんと話すたびに、(山田さんは私を)(はげ)ましてくれる。
      Every time I talk with Yamada-san, she/he encourages me.
    • 会うたびに同じ話を聞かされるのはいやだ。
      I don’t like to be told the same story every time I see.
    • テレビを見るたびにコマーシャルの多いのにうんざりする。
      Every time I watch TV, I am disgusted by how many commercials there are.

    名詞 のたびに

    • 旅行(りょこう)のたびに、母はおみやげを買ってきてくれる。
      On every trip, my mother brings back souvenirs/gifts.
  10. Vてくれたらと思ういます / ~てくれたらいいのですが = ‘I wish someone would do something; It would be great if someone does something for me’
    This is equivalent to Vてくれたらいい(のに) と思ういます and expresses the speaker’s (or writer’s) wish or hope. It literally means ‘it would be nice if ~.’

    • うちの子供は、遊んでばかりいるんですが、もっと勉強してくれたらと思います。
      My child is just having a good time. I wish he [she] would study more.
    • 時代に合わせて男が変わってくれたrと思います。
      I wish men would change with the times.

    Causative (permissive use) +くれたら: It would be great if someone let me do something

    • 子供の時、父/母が(私に)車を運転(うんてん)させてくれたらと思った。
      When I was a child, it would have been great if my father/mother would have let me drive a car.
    • 父/母が(私に)私の好きなことをさせてくれたらいいのですが…
      It would be great if my father/mother would make my favorite foods.

Chapter 15 文法ノート

  1. ~ような気がする = ‘to have a feeling that; to have the impression that; it seems to me that’
    • 日本語が少し上達(じょうたつ)したような気がします。
      I feel my Japanese has improved a little.
    • 外国人労働者(ろうどうしゃ)増加(ぞうか)と供に、日本も変わってきたような気がします。
      With an increase in foreign laborers, I feel Japan has started to change.
  2. XはYと関係(かんけい)がある
    This expression means that X has something to do with Y or that X is related to Y.

    • 日本とアメリカの貿易摩擦(ぼうえきまさつ)は、経済(けいざい)上の問題(もんだい)だけでなく、文化(ぶんか)(ちが)いとも関係があるのではないでしょうか。
      It seems to me that trade friction between the U.S. and Japan is not only an economic issue but is also related to the cultural differences.
    • 女性が結婚(けっこん)してからも仕事を(つづ)けるかどうかは男性の理解(りかい)と関係がある。
      Whether women continue working after getting married has something to do whether men are sympathetic to the situation or not.
  3. ~がる
    がる attaches to a な-adjective or い-adjective, and indicates that someone shows a sign of feeling in a certain way. So, いやがる comes from いやだ. Japanese makes a distinction between the speaker’s expression of his or her own feeling and the speaker’s expression of someone else’s feeling. Thus, while いやだ generally expresses the speaker/writer’s own feeling of dislike, いやがる generally describes someone else’s feeling of dislike, which the speaker/writer can observe.

    • 洗濯(せんたく)がいやだ。
      I hate doing the wash.
      Boys hate doing the wash.
    • 人前で話すのは、恥ずかしい。
      I feel embarrassed when I talk in front of people.
      In Japan, there are many students who feel embarrassed about talking in front of others.
    • カラオケは面白い。
      Karaoke is fun.
      It’s not good to make fun of other people’s mistakes.
    • 私は、ほしいものは、自分で買う。
      I buy things I want with my own money.
      I don’t think it’s good [for parents] to buy their children everything they want.
  4. Vてほしい
    [XはYにVてほしい] means that X wants Y to do V. Basically, it is interchangeable with Vてもらいたい.

    • 先生は学生に毎日勉強してほしいと思う。
      Teachers want students to study every day.
    • ときどきは主人(しゅじん)に料理をしてほしいと思います。
      I do want my husband to cook sometimes.
    • 教室(きょうしつ)ではタバコを()わないでほしいんだけど。
      I don’t want you to smoke in the classroom.

    Note that when you want to express your own desire to do something, you use V-たい form (as in 日本へ行きたい).

  5. ~に(もと)づく = ‘to be based on ~’
    • 人と人との問題(もんだい)誤解(ごかい)に基づくことが多い。
      Problems between people are often based on misunderstandings.
    • 内容質問(ないようしつもん)はクラスで読んだ読み物に基づいています。
      Content-related questions are based on reading passages we read in class.
  6. ~からと言って = ‘just because ~’
    • アメリカ人だからと言って名前を()()てにする日本人がいる。
      There are Japanese who call Americans by their first names only just because they are Americans [i.e., not Japanese].
    • アメリカでは、外国人だから言って英語をゆっくり話してはくれない。
      In America people would not slow down in talking to you just because you are a foreigner.
    • 日本人だから言って日本語が教えられるわけではありません。
      It’s not necessarily the case that one can teach Japanese just because one is a Japanese.
  7. Xを気にする = ‘to lot X bother one’
    X can be a noun or a sentence followed by の or こと.

    • 小さい間違(まちが)いを気にしていたら、外国語は話せません。
      If you are worried about minor mistakes, you won’t be able to speak any foreign language.
    • 人が言うことをあまり気にしない方がいいですよ。
      You should not let what other people say bother you.
  8. ~なら(べつ)だ = ‘if ~, it’s different’
    • アメリカなら別ですが、日本で上司(じょうし)より早く家へ帰ることはできません。
      It’s different in the U.S., but in Japan, you cannot go home earlier than your boss.
    • クラスの外でなら別ですが、クラスの中では日本語を話すようにしてください。
      If it were outside of class, it would be different. But, in class, try to speak in Japanese.
  9. ()る / ()ない
    [V(stem) + 得る / 得ない is a classical (formal expression equivalent to ~ことができる / ~ことができない. As for the verb ある, since あることができる (できない) does not exist, it is always あり()る / あり()ない.
    Note: this expression is used for expressing possibility NOT ability.

    • 先生が間違(まちが)えるということもあり得る。
      It’s possible that teachers make mistakes.
    • この世界(せかい)から戦争(せんそう)がなくなるということはあり得ないと思う。
      I think it’s unlikely that wars will disappear from this world.
    • 日本人の習慣(しゅうかん)でアメリカ人に理解(りかい)し得ないことの一つに「ホンネ」と「タテマエ」がある。
      One of the Japanese customs that is hard for Americans to understand is the idea of honne vs. tatemae.

Culture Notes

Begin your letter with 拝啓(はいけい). Next, write about the recent/current weather, inquire about the addressee’s health, and touch upon your own health. Then proceed to the main body of the letter. Lastly, in the concluding portion, write ではどうぞよろしくお願いします if it is a letter of request. Otherwise, just write so-and-so によろしく, どうぞお元気で, etc. The most common complimentary close is 敬具(けいぐ). When you are in a big hurry, you can skip the beginning part about the weather, health, etc. by writing 前略(ぜんりゃく), which literally means “preliminaries deleted.” A letter that starts with 前略 usually ends with 草々(そうそう), meaning “in a quick fashion.” If you are writing to a close friend, however, you may leave out all these formal salutations.

Extra-Curricular Activities
Japanese colleges/universities have all kinds of clubs for extra-curricular activities. Some are sports clubs, e.g., 野球部(やきゅうぶ)、テニス部, etc., whose members play against teams from other colleges/universities. These varsity players engage in their sports throughout the year. Baseball players, for example, practice all year round. Their practice sessions are often Spartan, and those who miss them for no apparent reason are likely to be severely criticized. The language used within these sports clubs is often very restrictive in that koohai (younger members) must use keigo toward senpai (older members). Student who hate this regimentation yet love a particular sport often belong to a less restrictive group usually referred to as 同好会(どうこうかい), i.e., a group of people sharing the same interest. There are also all kinds of non-sports clubs ranging from ESS (English Speaking Society) to 歌舞伎同好会 (Kabuki club). There are many students who seem to spend more hours on extra-curricular activities than on course work. This situation, which most Americans find hard to understand, is possible, of course, because Japanese professors are generally far from demanding.

Telephone Conversations (Chapter 8)
In Japan, as in the U.S., the party that answers the phone speaks first by saying もしもし. Some people skip もしもし and identify themselves as soon as they pick up the receiver, saying, for example, 山田でございます. Business establishments normally identify themselves immediately, without saying もしもし.

Another difference between Japan and America is that the caller must identify himself/herself before being asked. He/She would then ask for the person he/she wishes to talk to, e.g., 南西大学のグラントと申しますが、片山先生いらっしゃるでしょうか. If you forget to identify yourself, the person answering would ask 失礼ですがどちら(さま)でしょうか. The latest trend seems to be to leave out the latter half of this sentence, leaving on 失礼ですが intact.

In English, for identification on the phone, one would say, “This is so-and-so” or “Is this so-and-so?” instead of “I am…” or “Are you…?” Likewise, in Japanese, one would say, こちらは池田ですが (This is Ikeda/the Ikedas) and そちらは加藤(かとう)さんのお(たく)ですか (Is that the Kato’s home?).

Polite Telephone Conversation Formulas
ジェイソン: もしもし、富田(とみた)さんのお宅でしょうか。
富田母:   はい、そうですが。
ジェイソン: こちらは南西大学のトンプソンですが、真美(まみ)さんいらっしゃいますか。
富田母:   はい、少々お待ちください。

If the person you wish to talk to is out
富田母:   あの、(むすめ)は今ちょっと出かけておりますが。
ジェイソン: あ、そうですか。何時ごろお帰りでしょうか。
富田母:   そうですね。八時ごろには(もど)ると思いますけど。
ジェイソン: そうですか。じゃ、また九時ごろお電話します。
富田母:   どうも申しわけありません。

If you wish to leave a message
ジェイソン: そうですか。それじゃ、お帰りになったら、こちらへお電話くださるようお(つた)えくださいませんか。
富田母:   わかりました。

ジェイソン: じゃ、失礼します。
富田母:   ごめんください。

Giongo and Gitaigo (Chapter 12)
Japanese has a rich system of sound symbolism. Roughly, they can be subdivided into two categories: 擬音語(ぎおんご) (phonomimes, onomatopoeia) and 擬態語(ぎたいご) (phenomimes, psychomimes). 擬音語 represents words that imitate actual sounds. English has some of those, too, such as sounds that animals make. Compare the following:

  • Sound dogs make: bowwow – わんわん
  • Sound of a gunshot: bang – どん、ずどん
  • Sound cats make: meow – にゃーお
  • Water dripping: drip, drip – ぽたぽた
  • Sound cows make: moo – もー
  • Heavy object falling: thud – どしん、どさっ

擬態語 are words that express states, feelings, manners of actions, etc., impressionistically. English has some擬態語-like words, too, such as roly-poly and shilly-shally.

There are three important differences between English and Japanese here. First, in English, if one speaks with too many 擬音語 or 擬態語, one may run the risk of sounding childish. In Japanese, there is no fear of this unless one uses onomatopoeia specifically used in baby-talk, e.g., わんわん for犬. Second, English is actually filled with verbs and adjectives that originated as擬音語 or 擬態語 but are no longer regarded as such, e.g., slam, whack, Rash, slick, smooth, plump, glisten, etc. In Japanese, on the other hand, many 擬音語 and 擬態語 are used adverbially, often with the addition of と, e.g.,

  • きりきり(と)痛む – to have a piercing pain
  • しくしく(と)痛む – something (usually, stomach or teeth) hurts in a dull, persistent way
  • ぽんぽn(と)質問する – to ask questions in rapid succession, i.e., in machine gun fashion
  • ぼそぼそ(と)話す – to talk in a subdued tone
  • のらりくらり(と)話す – to talk noncommittally/evasively

Third (and this is related to the second point above), there are very often cases where in English, completely different verbs are used for related actions while, in Japanese, on and the same verb will do with the addition of different擬音語 and 擬態語, e.g.,

  • けらけら(わら)う – to guffaw
  • くすくす笑う – to giggle
  • にやっと笑う – to grin
  • にこにこ笑う – to smile